Treatment of raw materials
The Fourdrinier Machine
Preparing the finished product for export
Preparing the Pulp
The beater further reduces the raw materials to pulp. Traditionally beating was done by hand with a pestle and mortar, then with the introduction of water power the pulp was beaten by water powered stampers.
Circa 1750 the Hollander beater began to be used in the UK. The Hollander beater mascerating the pulp for several hours until it was sufficiently beaten to be used in the papermaking process. The pulp added into the beaters was called ‘half stuff.' At this point resin, alum, and china clay were piped into the mixture in a liquid or powder form to improve the quality and opacity of the paper. This process was called loading. When beating was completed, papermakers had what was called the "furnish," the final prepared material used to make sheets of paper.
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